By Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm

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**Example text**

This is because the grating lines are oriented parallel to the y axis in the reflector plane. 1. Surfaces that scatter onto straight lines on the observation sphere in this manner are referred to as one-dimensional surfaces in the scatter literature. This definition does not refer to spatial dimensions (the sample has three spatial dimensions), but to the number of spatial frequency propagation directions required to represent the surface through Fourier composition (Church, Jenkinson, and Zavada 1979).

The general form of these instruments is shown in Fig. 7. Light strikes the sample at near-normal incidence and is reflected back to a detector used to measure P0 . The scattered light is gathered by a nearly complete hemispherical mirror (sometimes called a Coblentz sphere) that is oriented so that its center is midway between the illuminated spot on the sample and a small nearby detector. Scattered light is gathered over the region from the mirror entrance/exit aperture out to the mirror waist and is focused on the scatter detector by the Coblentz sphere.

E. Nicodemus et al. , virtually all optics). The defining geometry is shown in Fig. ∗ The notation is consistent with Fig. 1 (where θ+/−1 is just the discrete value of θ s ) and will be used throughout the book. Thus, the direction of the specular beam is θ s = θi and φ s = 0. The retrodirection (for light scattered back into the incident specular beam) is given by θ s = θi and φ s = 180 deg. Nicodemus started with a fairly complicated, general case of light reflected from a surface and made several logical approximations to arrive at a simple manageable form for the BRDF.