By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan
This e-book had its genesis in a symposium on fuel hydrates offered on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yankee Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers awarded in 4 periods over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy themes no longer addressed in the course of the symposium. gasoline hydrates are a different category of chemicals the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with no bonding chemically, inside of an open sturdy lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). a majority of these configurations are referred to as clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of an acceptable measurement such that they healthy in the cage shaped through the host fabric. Commonexamples of gasoline hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At average strain and temperature, methane hydrate comprises through quantity one hundred eighty instances as a lot methane as hydrate. the us Geological Survey (USGS) has predicted that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all different kinds of fossil fuels mixed. in truth, methane hydrates may provide a fresh resource of strength for numerous centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first found within the early 1800s whilst Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combinations.
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The reaction index, is not assumed to be equal to one. Rather, its value is determined by means of the experimental data. The departure from equilibrium can be expressed by either or These ratios will be equal to unity when equilibrium is attained. The ratio can be estimated using an equation of state for the gas phase. The water vapor pressure can be neglected and the gas phase is assumed pure methane. Further, can be estimated using an equation of state for the liquid system, but the mole fraction of the gas in the liquid cannot be determined at non-equilibrium conditions.
Thus, the amount of gas reacted in the hydrate formation according to isothermal calculations is higher than in the non-isothermal calculations. The non-isothermal calculations follow closer the experimental (dQ/dt and Q) behavior, and present better results in terms of our assumption of equality between the amount of gas consumed during induction and growth periods and the amount of gas reacted. The differences between the isothermal and non-isothermal models confirm that the temperature changes during the hydrate formation have a significant effect on the model calculations of the amount of gas consumed from the gas phase, the amount of gas reacted, and the rate of reaction.
This represents 47% of initial amount of gas. 590 moles. Figure 7 shows a reasonably good agreement between the cumulative gas consumed during the reaction process (Induction and growth periods) and the gas consumed in the reaction (integration of rate of reaction) with time. The best estimate parameter values and the coefficient of regression are presented in Table 2. 4. CONCLUSIONS The proposed hydrate formation and dissociation models describe fairly well the behavior of the experimental data for different experimental conditions and apparatus, while providing important insights into the mechanism of the hydrate formation and dissociation processes.