Algae by Linda E. Graham

By Linda E. Graham

present, finished, and without difficulty available to all readers despite their wisdom at the topic, this information-packed source on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial algae varieties makes a speciality of what humans really need to know approximately algae—why they're so different; how they're similar; easy methods to distinguish the foremost forms; their roles in nutrition webs, international biogeochemical biking; the formation of destructive algae bloom; and the way we make the most of them. presents a stimulating review of the significance of algae. Covers biotic institutions regarding algae, with discussions on herbivory interactions, algal foodstuff caliber, symbioses, pathogeneic interactions, and extra. Considers the industrial, ecological, and biotechnological functions of algae, and offers whole insurance on algal biodiversity, category structures, molecular phylogenetics, and alertness of molecular details to ecological difficulties. bargains an in depth research on endosymbiosis. and contains in depth, stand-alone chapters on cryptomonads, dinoflagellates, ochrophytes, crimson algae, eco-friendly algae, and phytoplankton ecology. Covers new analytical suggestions (i.e. molecular phylogenetics, DNA-based ways to the examine of existence cycles, and fluorescence tools for the research for photosynthesis); integrates many attention-grabbing boxed essays; and complements fabric with a number of pictures and illustrations. For researchers and pros within the fields of aquatic ecology and technological program of algae.

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1997; Iglesias-Rodriguez and Merrett, 1997). , 1994 ). In some eukaryotic algae, external CA is constitutive (always present), whereas in other cases it is induced by low levels of environmental carbon dioxide. Still other species completely lack external CA, even when grown in a medium having a low concentration of inorganic carbon. In a study of 18 species of marine phytoplankton, Nimer, et al. (1997) found that extracellular CA was constitutive in four of the five dinotla- Chapter 2-The Roles of Algae in Biogeochemistry Figure 2-12 Carbonic anhydrase immunolocalized to the cell wall and periplasmic space (the region between the cell wall and the cell membranearrowheads) of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

The cytoplasmic carbohydrate food reserve is granular floridean starch, an a-1,4-glucan. Cell walls are loosely constructed of cellulose and sulfated polygalactans, and some are impregnated with calcium carbonate. The calcified red algae known as corallines are widespread and ecologically significant in coral reef systems. The 4000-6000 species are primarily marine, favoring warm tropical waters. Sexual reproduction is common, as is alternation of generations. A triphasic life history characterizes most red algae and is unique to this group.

Moreover, the advantages of algal calcification are poorly understood, though calcification may protect coralline red algae from herbivory (Chapter 16). In the cases of corallines, the stonewort Chara, and coccolithophorids, calcification appears to be a mechanism assisting in the acquisition of carbon dioxide for pho- Chapter 2-The Roles of Algae in Biogeochemistry 31 tosynthesis (McConnaughey and Whelan, 1996). This would be helpful in today's relatively carbon dioxide-depleted environment in overcoming (inorganic) carbon-limitation of photosynthesis, our next topic.

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