By P.Boguski, P.J.Crabtree
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Extra info for Ancient Europe 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000: An Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World
7 million years ago at Dmanisi in Georgia. The earliest traces of Stone Age settlement in Europe date at least to 700,000 years ago and perhaps even earlier at sites in southern Europe. Over the next several hundred thousand years, humans reached as far north as southern England and central Germany, where they left hand axes, chopping tools, and their skeletal remains at sites such as Boxgrove in England and Bilzingsleben in Germany. Neanderthals flourished in southern and western Europe between 100,000 and 35,000 years ago, and their eventual disappearance remains a mystery to archaeologists.
EARLY HOLOCENE WARMING One of the lessons from the present plethora of research into climatic history is that change is not necessarily gradual. In the case of Europe the transition from the tail end of the ice ages to a much more temperate climate was quite rapid. C. 8°F) per century in these waters. 04°F) per century in not yet insular Britain. C. The consequences for the natural world and hence for human habitats were profound. The vegetation belts and their associated fauna shifted northward, so most of Europe was a cool temperate forest zone with dominance by broad-leaved trees.
We believe that there are several reasons. The first is that the barbarian societies of Europe provided the technological, economic, social, and cultural foundations for the late medieval and modern European societies that we know from historical accounts. The continuity observed in the archaeological record means that the precursors of all sorts of modern customs and practices have their roots deep in antiquity. DNA evidence makes it possible now even to identify modern individuals as the distant descendants of people whose skeletons are found in prehistoric graves.